12 Health Conditions
12 Health Conditions Linked to Chronic Heavy Drinking
Courtesy of MedicineNet.com
Heavy drinking can cause the number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells to be abnormally low. This condition, know as anemia, can trigger a host of symptoms, including fatigue, shortness of breath, and lightheadedness.
“Habitual drinking increases the risk of cancer,” says Jurgen Rehm, PhD, of the University of Toronto’s department of addiction policy and a senior at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, also in Toronto. Scientists believe the increased risk comes when the body converts alcohol into acetaldehyde, a potent carcinogen. Cancer sites linked to alcohol use include the mouth, pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), esophagus, liver, breast, and colorectal region. Cancer risk rises even higher in heavy drinkers who also use tobacco.
Heavy drinking, especially bingeing, makes platelets more likely to clump together into blood clots, which can led to heart attack or stroke. In a landmark study published in 2005, Harvard researchers found that binge drinking doubled the risk of death among people who initially survived a heart attack.
Heavy drinking can also cause cardiomyopathy, a potentially deadly condition in which the heart muscle weakens and eventually fails, as well as heart rhythm abnormalities atrial and ventricular fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation, in which the heart’s upper chambers (atria) twitch chaotically rather than constrict rhythmically, can cause blood clots that can trigger a stroke. Ventricular fibrillation causes chaotically twitching in the hearts main pumping chambers (ventricles). It causes rapid loss of consciousness and, in the absence of immediate treatment, sudden death.
Alcohol is toxic to liver cells, and many heavy drinkers develop cirrhosis, a sometimes-lethal condition in which the liver is so heavily scarred that it is unable to function. But it is hard to predict which drinkers will develop cirrhosis. Some people who drink huge amounts never get cirrhosis, and some who don’t drink very much do get it. For some unknown reason, women seem to be especially vulnerable.
- As people age, their brains shrink, on average, at a rate of about 1.9% per decade. That’s considered normal. But heavy drinking speeds the shrinkage of certain key regions of the brain, resulting in memory loss and other symptoms of dementia.
- Heavy drinking can also lead to subtle but potentially debilitating deficits in the ability to plan, make judgments, solve problems, and perform other aspects of “executive function” which are “the higher-order abilities that allow us to maximize our function as human beings” says James C. Garbutt, MD, professor of psychiatry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine. In addition to the “nonspecific” dementia that stems from brain atrophy, heavy drinking can cause nutritional deficiencies so severe that they trigger other forms of dementia.
- It’s long been known that heavy drinking often goes hand in hand with depression, but there has been debate about which came first – the drinking or the depression. One theory is that depressed people turn to alcohol in an attempt to “self-medicate” to ease their emotional pain. But in 2010, a large study in New Zealand showed that it was probably the other way around – that is, heavy drinking led to depression.
- Research has also shown that depression improves when heavy drinkers go on the wagon.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can seriously harm an unborn baby. FASD is an umbrella term used to describe the range of disabilities and diagnoses that result from drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Specific birth defects and the degree of the disability can depend on how much alcohol was consumed, how often and when during the pregnancy. No amount or type of alcohol during pregnancy is considered safe.
A painful condition, gout is caused by the formation of uric acid crystals in the joints. Although some cases are largely hereditary, alcohol and other dietary factors seem to play a role. Alcohol also seems to aggravate existing cases of gout.
High blood pressure
Alcohol can disrupt sympathetic nervous system, which among other things, controls the constriction and dilation of blood vessels in response to stress, temperature, exertion etc. Heavy drinking – and bingeing in particular – can cause blood pressure to rise. Over time, this effect can become chronic. High blood pressure can lead to many other health problems, including kidney disease, heart disease, and stroke.
Heavy drinking suppresses the immune system, providing a toehold for infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia, HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases (including some that cause infertility). People who drink heavily also are more likely to engage in risky sex. “Heavy drinking is associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease,” Rehmn says
Heavy drinking can cause a form of nerve damage known as neuropathy, which can produce a painful pins-and-needles feeling or numbness in the extremities as well as muscle weakness, incontinence, constipation, erectile dysfunction, and other problems. Alcoholic neuropathy may arise because alcohol is toxic to nerve cells, or because nutritional deficiencies attributable to heavy drinking compromise nerve function.
In addition to causing stomach irritation (gastritis), drinking can inflame the pancreas. Chronic pancreatitis interferes with the digestive process, causing severe abdominal pain and persistent diarrhea. Some cases of chronic pancreatitis are triggered by gallstones, but up 60% stem from alcohol consumption.